Bali has a long chain of history from the ice-age era (pre-historic time) to modern, global civilization era. With a dynamic characteristic indicating selectivity and flexibility, the Balinese culture initially reflects a configuration of an expressive culture dominated by religious, solidarity and aesthetic values. Nowadays, it develops along with the adoption of foreign values especially in the aspects of the economic, science and technology, as a result of the global modernization.
In general, the history of Bali is divided into three different eras including the pre-historic, the Hindu-Buddhist era and the modern culture.
Pre-historic era in history of Bali
The pre-historic marked the oldest and simplest way of life, an era of hunting and food-stuff gathering, verified by the discovery of several tools and hunting equipments. In the following era there were also building construction system and a particular communication system. These were just proofs of the existence and further development of Balinese culture. The Balinese culture flourished that nowadays one can indicates a perfect bonds between religions, tradition and culture to become the identity of the Balinese community.
Bali Island was first occupied in 3000 is estimated to-2500SM. Bali’s first inhabitants are immigrants from Asia. There is a historical relic stone tools from this period, which is found in the village throttle located on the west of the island. Prehistoric times ended at about the entry of 100SM Hinduism and Sanskrit writings from India.
Hindu-Buddhist era in Bali history
Since then, Balinese culture is much influenced by Indian culture, where the process of inculturation of Indian culture with the indigenous culture is accelerated After the 1st century AD. From since then, the name Balidwipa (Bali Island) began to be found in various inscriptions, including inscriptions Blanjong charter issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa the 913M and mention Walidwipa said. In this era began to develop estimated irrigation irrigation systems subak, and some religious and cultural traditions of Hinduism.
Portuguese had washed up near Cape hill, which is in tahuun jimbaran 1585, but the Europeans who first discovered Bali is Cornelis de Houtman from the Netherlands in 1597. Dutch through the East India Company began to implement land occupation in Bali, but continue to get resistance from the people of Bali.
Starting from the northern region of Bali, since around the year 1840 the Dutch presence has become permanent, which originally began with devide et impera politics or the political contest pitting sheep Balinese rulers that eventually emerged mutual distrust one another. Dutch major attack by sea and land in Sanur area, and followed by the Denpasar area. Bali party who lost in number and weapons not want to experience shame for surrender, thus causing the war to the death or bellows, which involves all the people both men and women including the king. An estimated 4,000 people died in the incident, although the Netherlands has ordered them to surrender. After that, the Dutch governor in charge do not give meaning to cultural influences, religion and culture so that existing generally unchanged.
The modern culture era
Japan occupied Bali during World War II, and then a military officer named I Gusti Ngurah Rai Bali forming forces ‘freedom fighters’. Following the Japanese surrender in the Pacific in August 1945, the Dutch soon returned to Indonesia (including Bali) to re-establish its colonial rule as a state before the war. This was opposed by the opposition forces that Bali is now using Japanese weapons.
On 20 November 1940, fighting broke out Puputan Margarana happened in the village of Marga, Tabanan, Bali middle. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai, a 29-year-old, led his troops from the eastern Bali to take the offensive until the death of Dutch troops are armed to the teeth. All members of the battalion Bali killed everything, and make it as a military resistance Bali last.
In 1946 the Dutch made Bali as one of 13 areas part of the state of Indonesia was proclaimed the new East, which as one of the rival state to the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali was also incorporated into the United States of Indonesia when the Dutch recognized Indonesian independence on December 29, 1949. In 1950, officially Bali perserikatannya with the Dutch left and legally became a province of the Republic of Indonesia.
Mount Agung eruption occurred in 1963, had shaken the people’s economy and caused many of the Balinese transmigration to other areas in Indonesia.
In 1965, along with the failure by the G30S PKI against the national government in Jakarta, in Bali and many other areas there was the extermination of the members and sympathizers of the Communist Party of Indonesia. In Bali, it is estimated more than 100,000 people were killed or missing. Nevertheless, the events in the early days of New Order is up to now have not succeeded disclosed by law.
|About Bali Island|
Bali Island, Being one of the most beautiful tourist spots in Asia, Bali is attracts more than 1.000.000. Bali is situated between the island Java and Lombok. Bali is a small tiny island, stretching approximately 140 km from west to east and 80 km from south to north. The tallest volcanic mountains is Mount Agung
Hindu Offering, In Hinduism, food plays an important role in rituals and worship, and the food offered to the gods is called “prasada”. The Sanskrit word “prasada” means “mercy,” or the divine grace of God. we can offer our food to God with devotion before eating it, not only are we not implicated in the karma involved in acquiring the food
Balinese Temple, Unlike temples in Java, temples in Bali (called pura), become parts of the life of Balinese who mostly are Hindu religion. Balinese temple is a place of worship for Hindu. Each Hindu family has family temple at their house to worship Hyang Widhi and their ancestors
Bali Kecak Dance
Kecak dance performance presents the dance as an introduction to the story, vital music to accompany the dancers movements, the music generated from a combination sounds of members “cak” which were about 50-70 people all of them will make music in akapela. The story is a fragment from the Ramayana
Bali Barong Dance
Barong is a character in the mythology of Bali. He is the king of the spirits, leader of the hosts of good, and enemy of Rangda in the mythological traditions of Bali. The fight between Barong and Rangda is also the topic of traditional narratives, usually performed in the temple of the dead. The most famous is the story of Calonarang
Bali Nyepi Day (Silent Day)
Nyepi, Every religion or culture all over the world has their own way to define and celebrate their new year. The same thing also occurs in Bali, however the Balinese use different calendar systems to define a new year of the Saka Hindu, Westerners open the New Year in revelry, however, in contrast, the Balinese open their New Year in silence
Balinese Galungan Ceremony
Galungan is a sacred ceremony that gives spiritual strength to be able to distinguish between life force coming from adharma and which budhi atma is the voice of truth (dharma). It also gives the ability to discern giant orientation and orientation of God . It must be realized that life is happy or emo life has the ability to master the giant orientation.
Bali Perang Pandan Tradition
Perang Pandan is specific to Tenganan village only. The word ” perang pandan” is a two words noun in Indonesian language, This war dance in Tenganan village is called ” makare-karean ” This event is carried out during the ceremony of the temple called ” Ngusaba ” It is strange because this kind of ceremony is also known by the rest of Balinese,
Balinese Wedding Ceremony
Balinese Wedding is unforgettable momentum for the human being where the procession is followed by Hindu rituals, custom regulation and the perfect day based on Balinese Hindu Calendar. A marriage couple will use the beautiful uniforms during the procession. A couple’s marriage will not be acknowledged in the society if it is carried out without a traditional sacred ceremony
Ogoh-Ogoh (Giant Puppet)
The name ogoh-ogoh is taken from Balinese “ogah-ogah” which means something which is shaken. Ogoh-ogoh is made in form of Bhuta Kala or evil spirits and creatures who like to disturb human’s life. Bhuta Kala is usually symbolized as a giant creature / Rakshasa with scary and ferocious appearance, also often symbolized in other forms such as mythological creature like Garuda, dragon etc.
Balinese Ngaben Ceremony
Ngaben or Cremation Ceremony, is the ritual performed in Bali to send the deceased to the next life. The body of the deceased will be placed as if sleeping, and the family will continue to treat the deceased as sleeping. No tears are shed, because the deceased is only temporarily not present and will reincarnate or find his final rest in Moksha (freeing from the reincarnation and death cycle).
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